dhruv's wiki

Boolean Arithmetic and the ALU

Representing Negative Numbers

  • Possibility #1: Use most significant bit as +/- sign: not very elegant
  • Possibility #2: Use 2's complement: doesn't have the problems of the above approach

2's complement

If you want to represent a negative number -x, you just represent it as the positive number 2^n - x, where n is the total number of bits.

Here's how that looks like in a 4-bit binary system:


The range of positive and negative numbers using this approach is:

  • Positive numbers: $0\text{ to }2^{(n-1)} - 1$
  • Negative numbers: $-1\text{ to }-2^{(n-1)}$

The benefit of using 2's complement is that we get the subtraction operation for free. For example, if we want to calculate 7 - 5, we can represent it as 7 + (-5). These numbers in their binary form (using 2's complement for -5) look like:

+ 1011
  0010  (overflown bit thrown away)

0010 in decimal form is 2, which is (7 - 5).

Computing -x

As seen above, y - x can be calculated using the hardware that does addition (by representing it as y + (-x)), but a hardware unit is needed to compute -x in 2's complement. This can be achieved using a simple mathematical trick:

$$ 2^{n} - x = 1 + (2^{n} - 1) - x $$

$(2^{n}$ is a binary number that is represented by all 1s. To subtract any number from a binary number with all ones, we just need to flip the bits (pretty cool trick!). So we just flip the bits of x and add a 1 (using the hardware we already have).

For example, if we need to calculate the negative of 4 (which would be 1100 for a 4-bit system).

4 -> 0100

flip the bits
add 1

+ 0001
  1100  -> exactly what we need

!!! tip Adding 1 is a special case. We start from the right most bit, and keep on flipping bits until we reach a 0 which is flipped to 1.

!!! note Key takeaway: We don't need to build any special hardware to handle negative numbers.

Project 2

  • HalfAdder
  • FullAdder
  • Add16
  • Inc16
  • ALU



The carry column resembles an AND gate, and the sum column resembles an XOR gate.

CHIP HalfAdder {
    IN a, b;    // 1-bit inputs
    OUT sum,    // Right bit of a + b 
        carry;  // Left bit of a + b

    And(a=a, b=b, out=carry);
    Xor(a=a, b=b, out=sum);




The third HalfAdder is not needed, since we're only considering the sum output of the HalfAdder anyway, which follows the XOR logic.

CHIP FullAdder {
    IN a, b, c;  // 1-bit inputs
    OUT sum,     // Right bit of a + b + c
        carry;   // Left bit of a + b + c

    HalfAdder(a=a, b=b, sum=intSum, carry=intCarry1);
    HalfAdder(a=intSum, b=c, sum=sum, carry=intCarry2);
    Xor(a=intCarry1, b=intCarry2, out=carry);



CHIP Add16 {
    IN a[16], b[16];
    OUT out[16];

    HalfAdder(a=a[0], b=b[0], sum=out[0], carry=carry1);
    FullAdder(a=a[1], b=b[1], c=carry1, sum=out[1], carry=carry2);
    FullAdder(a=a[2], b=b[2], c=carry2, sum=out[2], carry=carry3);
    FullAdder(a=a[3], b=b[3], c=carry3, sum=out[3], carry=carry4);
    FullAdder(a=a[4], b=b[4], c=carry4, sum=out[4], carry=carry5);
    FullAdder(a=a[5], b=b[5], c=carry5, sum=out[5], carry=carry6);
    FullAdder(a=a[6], b=b[6], c=carry6, sum=out[6], carry=carry7);
    FullAdder(a=a[7], b=b[7], c=carry7, sum=out[7], carry=carry8);
    FullAdder(a=a[8], b=b[8], c=carry8, sum=out[8], carry=carry9);
    FullAdder(a=a[9], b=b[9], c=carry9, sum=out[9], carry=carry10);
    FullAdder(a=a[10], b=b[10], c=carry10, sum=out[10], carry=carry11);
    FullAdder(a=a[11], b=b[11], c=carry11, sum=out[11], carry=carry12);
    FullAdder(a=a[12], b=b[12], c=carry12, sum=out[12], carry=carry13);
    FullAdder(a=a[13], b=b[13], c=carry13, sum=out[13], carry=carry14);
    FullAdder(a=a[14], b=b[14], c=carry14, sum=out[14], carry=carry15);
    FullAdder(a=a[15], b=b[15], c=carry15, sum=out[15], carry=carry16);


The Hack ALU computes a fixed set of functions based on the setting of 6 input bits, called control units.


The Hack ALU is designed to compute 18 functions, which are listed below (although, having 6 control bits gives allows the possibility of computing 2^6 functions).


The ALU has 2 output control bits (zr, and ng), which work as follows:

  • if out=0 then zr = 1 else zr = 0
  • if out<0 then ng = 1 else ng = 0
        x[16], y[16],  // 16-bit inputs        
        zx, // zero the x input?
        nx, // negate the x input?
        zy, // zero the y input?
        ny, // negate the y input?
        f,  // compute out = x + y (if 1) or x & y (if 0)
        no; // negate the out output?

        out[16], // 16-bit output
        zr, // 1 if (out == 0), 0 otherwise
        ng; // 1 if (out < 0),  0 otherwise

    Mux16(a=x, b=false, sel=zx, out=stage1OutX);
    Not16(in=stage1OutX, out=notStage1OutX);
    Mux16(a=stage1OutX, b=notStage1OutX, sel=nx, out=stage2OutX);

    Mux16(a=y, b=false, sel=zy, out=stage1OutY);
    Not16(in=stage1OutY, out=notStage1OutY);
    Mux16(a=stage1OutY, b=notStage1OutY, sel=ny, out=stage2OutY);
    Add16(a=stage2OutX, b=stage2OutY, out=xPlusY);
    And16(a=stage2OutX, b=stage2OutY, out=xBitwiseAndY);
    Mux16(a=xBitwiseAndY, b=xPlusY, sel=f, out=stage3Out);

    Not16(in=stage3Out, out=notStage3Out);
    Mux16(a=stage3Out, b=notStage3Out, sel=no, out=out, out[0..7]=zout1, out[8..15]=zout2, out[15]=ng);
    //pretty neat! -> output can be fanned out to multiple signals
    //in a single line

    Or8Way(in=zout1, out=or1);
    Or8Way(in=zout2, out=or2);
    Or(a=or1, b=or2, out=orOut);
    //the above 3 lines are to check if all bits in out are 0
    Not(in=orOut, out=zr);